Turkish Music...

clock May 28, 2014 19:44 by author Cigdem

Turkish music.pptx (615.20 kb)


I prepare a powerpoint show which has good examples of Turkish music and Turkish instruments.

You can watch our students and teacher "live" performance.

Have fun...

Turkish music.pptx (615.20 kb)

Freestyle Through Differences

clock May 10, 2014 09:42 by author caffarra

Freestyle Through Differences

Stories, readings, images and theate-dance performances

Parma, 13th December 2013 – Teatro Europa, Via Oradour – h. 9.15/12.45



The morning was for secondary school classes interested in investigating the topic of differences either as resources or problems. The challenge that differences throw rests on a question: is it possible to totally fulfil yourself as a person who embodies difference?  




 On December 13th we went to “Teatro Europa” to take part in a morning meeting thought to talk about diversity between people through art and testimonials. Classes that are dealing with topics such as differences between cultures, between beliefs and between genders, were present on behalf of city institutes.





At the beginning of the event, after a short introduction they projected a video about the considerations made by many students of different schools in Parma at the end of a work carried out at school with their teachers. After that an Albanian guy shared with us his experience of immigration to Italy. He explained the difficulties for a stranger to obtain the Italian citizenship and to integrate in the Italian society.




Then we listened to Giulia Ghiretti's nice testimony. She’s a nineteen-year-old girl. When she was fifteen she had a bad accident and because of this she had to change her point of view about life to continue to live. In fact her passion was trampoline and now, after the accident, she is a swimming champion. It was really astonishing listening to how easily, how intensely, but without lightness, she talked about this obstacle that had fallen on her: she simply continued doing what she had always done.



It was really great listening to her  explaining how much strength she needed to face that event, and even greater  was knowing that now she is taking part in the paralympics world swimming championship. I believe this experience has opened up our minds on some topics, maybe not well known, and has left us  good memories  we can use every day.




After that we watched a Street Dance performance showing intentionally cruel acts of violence and bullying among  the characters, who were at first rapists then victims, at first instigators, then hurt and beaten. The message was that violence and bullying have no meaning: once you could be the bully and another time you could be the person who suffers the violence made by stronger people. In some ways it is the law of the jungle to be condemned.

The phenomenon of bullying is one of the dark sides of young people’s personality, the one that wants to dominate the others. This phenomenon concerns everybody, without distinction of age, sex or ethnic group.






Do human races exist?

clock May 10, 2014 09:41 by author caffarra

Genetics: yesterday and today

Genetics study the transmission of hereditary features. You say “classic genetics” to refer to Mendel’s studies and laws, and to “molecular genetics” when you refer to the biochemical nature of genetic information, to the structure and duplication of DNA, to the protein synthesis and to its regulation.




Gregor Mendel was a monk who devoted himself, in the late 19th century, to the study of the transmission of hereditary features of the pea-plants  (that he grew). He understood that each gamete contains an unit of information (now called “gene”), whereas in the zygote there are two of them. Whit the world “gametes” we refer to sexual haploid cells. During fecundation, two gametes of different genders fuse into the zygote, a diploid cell from which all cells originate.


Mendel cross-fertilized two pure lines of pea-plants. He called this parental generation P. In F1, that is the offspring, the dominant feature appeared. The feature which reappeared in F2 was named recessive. The fundamental units are the genes (in pairs) in the zygote. Each unit in an allele.




If the two alleles are different, the living organism is heterozygote.

Beyond Mendel

For his experimental work, Mende l chose features that presented easy transmission methods: they were features determined by a simple gene which has just two alleles, a dominant  and a recessive one. Living organisms like man present a lot of features whose transmission follows more complicated rules than Mendel’s. These behaviors are a development of Mendel’s genetics.



Imperfect Dominance


If we cross-breed snapdragon plants, the heterozygotes are pink. When both the alleles, instead, are recognizable in the phenotype of the heterozygotes, we talk of codominance.  The blood groups are a case of codominance in human genetics.


Presence of several alleles of the same gene: multiple alleles.  There are three different alleles and four blood groups in humans.

Controls of several genes over a single character or polyginy

In human beings height, skin and eye colour is controlled by several genes (food influences height).


Skin colour is given by melanin: the higher the amount of melanin, the darker the colour of the skin



However, the genes that regulate the colour of the skin are 3 out of a total 25000


Genes and Environment


The physical features of an organism don’t result just from what is written in the genes, but are influenced by the environment: the arrangement of the branches and leaves of a tree may


vary according to light, wind etc.


Some fish may change their sex (although this character is genetic).

Environmental factors (lifestyle, diet, studies, journeys, meeting other peoples) are essential in determining what we are and what we will become.







The word “race” is used in biology to indicate a set of individuals belonging to the same species and distinguishable from other groups, which are also of the same species, for some specific and genetically constant characteres.

The term is used, for example, to define dog breeds or horse breeds and human races.


Can human diversity be traced within a given number of breeds?

Do human races exist?


What  are called racial traits are adaptations to the enviroment of a single species that migrated from Africa a hundred-thousand years ago and now it is distribuited throughout the  Earth.

Take for example the color of the skin. It goes from dark to fair depending on the distance from the equator.

Melanin is the dark pigment that protects skin from UV rays of the sun. (Melanins is most plentiful in the skin of the people who live in equatorial and tropical regions). Also the shape of the face is linked to differences in climate. The flat facial with small noses and lips of the people who live in North Asia adapts to cold climates (-50°). This type of face offers a smaller surface to the dispersion of the heat.

The claim to dividing humanity into races on the basis of these characteristics has no foundations from the point of view of science. 

Every biological variable or character we consider, eye shape, skull dimensions, skin colour, average height fades passing from a race to another one, for example  northern Asian inhabitants’ emphasized eyelid wrinkle distribution doesn’t coincide with that of those populations’ blood groups, which, in its turn doesn’t coincide with the distribution of the average height and eye colour distribution and so on.

As there is no reason to prefer some alleles to others in the definition of the affinities between the different populations, every attempt to group some features within the race or underspecies is arbitrary.

Charles Darwin too (with regard to quarrels among his contemporary scholars about the number of human races, from 2 to 63) ended by saying: “When the evolution principles will be accepted by everybody, the discussions between those who support the existence of underspecies or races will die of a silent death, which nobody will pay attention to”.

Unfortunately, the death of the concept of race doesn’t mean the death of racism. In fact this one has its roots not only in the non-acceptance of the biological differences, but also, and above all, of the cultural ones. 


For the memory of Ataturk

clock November 10, 2013 16:29 by author Cigdem

Today is the memorial day of Atatürk,the founder of our country. This photo was taken from the memorial ceremony: children who were singing for Atatürk